2014年9月2日火曜日

Guides to Publishing Open Data

As you can see from US City Open Data Census, many cities are making their data open.
http://us-city.census.okfn.org/



There are many guides and best practices learned from those cities, to publishing open data that countries/states/cities. Summary and links below for those interested!

Open Data Policy Guidelines by Sunlight Foundation

http://sunlightfoundation.com/opendataguidelines/
(CC-BY Sunlight Foundation)

What Data Should Be Public
  1. Proactively Release Government Information Online
  2. Reference And Build On Existing Public Accountability And Access Policies
  3. Build On The Values, Goals And Mission Of The Community And Government
  4. Create A Public, Comprehensive List Of All Information Holdings
  5. Specify Methods Of Determining The Prioritization Of Data Release
  6. Stipulate That Provisions Apply To Contractors Or Quasi-Governmental Agencies
  7. Appropriately Safeguard Sensitive Information
How to Make Data Public
  1. Mandate Data Formats For Maximal Technical Access
  2. Provide Comprehensive And Appropriate Formats For Varied Uses
  3. Remove Restrictions For Accessing Information
  4. Mandate Data Be Explicitly License-Free
  5. Charge Data-Creating Agencies With Recommending An Appropriate Citation Form
  6. Require Publishing Metadata
  7. Require Publishing Data Creation Processes
  8. Mandate The Use Of Unique Identifiers
  9. Require Code Sharing Or Publishing Open Source
  10. Require Digitization And Distribution Of Archival Materials
  11. Create A Central Location Devoted To Data Publication And Policies
  12. Publish Bulk Data
  13. Create Public APIs For Accessing Information
  14. Optimize Methods Of Data Collection
  15. Mandate Ongoing Data Publication And Updates
  16. Create Permanent, Lasting Access To Data
How to Implement Policy
  1. Create Or Appoint Oversight Authority
  2. Create Guidance Or Other Binding Regulations For Implementation
  3. Incorporate Public Perspectives Into Policy Implementation
  4. Set Appropriately Ambitious Timelines For Implementation
  5. Create Processes To Ensure Data Quality
  6. Ensure Sufficient Funding For Implementation
  7. Create Or Explore Potential Partnerships
  8. Mandate Future Review For Potential Changes To This Policy
Open Data Playbook by Code for America- Open by Default [beta]
http://www.codeforamerica.org/governments/capabilities/open-data/
(CC-BY Code for America)

Introduction: What is open data, and why bother?
  • Opendata.gov and 8 principles of open government data 
                http://opengovdata.org/
         1. Complete
    All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
         2. Primary
    Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
         3. Timely
    Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data.
         4. Accessible
    Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes.
         5. Machine processable
    Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing.
         6. Non-discriminatory
    Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration.
         7. Non-proprietary
    Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control.
         8. License-free
    Data is not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be allowed.

  • Open Data Glossary
          https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ZbkQ2Ad66FKVj-v2T-UHKJbsh0CHV-dm9MEAoy6yT2Y/edit
Laying the Groundwork for Open Data
  • Define the goals of your open data initiative and align it with organizational goals and priorities
     What to expect: How open data has worked for cities of all sizes
     -Open Data examples: Louisville, KY
     -Open Data examples: Chattanooga, TN
     -Open Data examples: Montgomery County, MD
     -Open Data examples: Pittsburgh, PA
     -Open Data examples: Albuquerque, New Mexico
     -Open Data examples: Kansas City, MO
     Read also: "Beyond Transparency" on open data's impact in various cities
     http://beyondtransparency.org/
  • Build departmental support and executive buy-in
     Who needs to be at the table?
      > Executive leadership,  Internal champion, IT leader, GIS Specialist, Departmental Stakeholders

Demonstrating Value: Open data success stories

     Public Safety Open Data examples:
     -San Francisco: Crime Spotting Map
     -New York City: Targeting Illegal Building Conversions Inspections
     Economic Development Open Data examples:
     -Asheville, North Carolina: Empowering Startups
     -Charlotte, NC: Helping Local Organizations Unlock Funding
     Citizen Participation Open Data example:
     -Chicago: Flu Shot Locations
     Health and Human Services Open Data example:
     -Louisville: Restaurant Inspection Scores on Yelp
     -San Mateo County: Aggregating Community Services
     Internal Cost Savings and Efficiency Open Data examples:
     -Albuquerque: Reducing Transit-Related 311 Calls
     -Oakland: Streamlining Public Records Requests
     -Chicago: Eliminating 311 Redundancies
     Transparency and Accountability Open Data example:
     -Boston: Increasing Trust Between Government and Residents

Opening and Publishing Data

  • Prioritizing data for release
     # Former Philadelphia Chief Data Officer Mark Headd recommends starting with the "Three Bs":
        Buses (transit data), Bullets (crime data), and Bucks (budget and expenditure data).
  • 18 recommended datasets
     http://us-city.census.okfn.org/faq/

     1. Asset Disclosure
     2. Budget
     3. Business Listings
     4. Campaign Finance Contributions
     5. Code Enforcement Violations
     6. Construction Permits
     7. Crime
     8. Lobbyist Activity
     9. Procurement Contracts
     10. Property Assessment
     11. Property Deeds
     12. Public Buildings
     13. Restaurant Inspections
     14. Service Requests (311)
     15. Spending
     16. Transit
     17. Zoning (GIS)
     18. Web Analytics
  • Compare major platform options and select an open data platform
    • CKAN -- the Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network -- is open source software powering open data platforms across the world. Provided by the Open Knowledge Foundation in the UK, CKAN is used at the local, regional, national, and international levels of government as well as in academia.
    • DKAN is a Drupal-based implementation of CKAN that offers an easier installation and support burden while preserving API compatibility.
    • OpenDataCatalog (ODC) is open source software originally created by Azavea for the city of Philadelphia.
    • Socrata is the most popular commercial data platform provider in the United States. Socrata offers a turnkey SaaS cloud-hosted data catalog, paid for on a subscription basis. The Socrata platform includes API abilities and sitewide analytics that track consumption and engagement metrics. Socrata is used by dozens of municipal governments, including Baltimore, Austin, Chicago, Seattle, and New York City.
    • 2014 Code for America Fellows compiled this "Open Data Portal Analysis" and detailed comparison which compares features and costs for some of the most common open data platform providers.
  • Publish your data 
Planning for Sustainability
  • Create an open data policy
     Example Policies:
     -City of South Bend Executive Order No. 2-2013
     -City of Louisville Executive Order No. 1, Series 2013
     -City of Austin Resolution No. 20111208-074
     Comprehensive list created by Sunlight Foundation:
     A Bird's Eye View Of Open Data Policies: http://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/opendatamap/
  • Appoint staff to be responsible for data management
     -Chief Data Officer
     -Open Data Coordinator (ODC)

Making open data useful

  • Use common open data formats
     Examples: General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS), Housefacts SpecificationLocal Inspector Value Entry Specification (LIVES), and other data formats
  • Hold a hackathon
     Socrata's "how to plan a hackathon" doc
  • Deploy apps that use open data
     Recommended apps for redeployment
     -Adopt-a-hydrant
     -Click That Hood
     -To The Trails
     -Look at Cook
     -Flu Shot Finder
     More apps can be found at Code for America Apps page
 

Open Data Field Guide by Socrata

http://www.socrata.com/open-data-field-guide-chapter/
(All rights reserved by Socrata)

0. Introduction to the Open Data Field Guide

1. Why Does My Organization Need Open Data?
-What Is Open Data?
     Is Open Data The Same As Open Government?
     Brief History of Open Data and Key Initiatives to Date
-Why Open Data? Why Now?
     A Changing 21st Century Constituency
     The Changing Nature of Government Work
     Leveraging the Community for Innovation

2. Define Clear and Measurable Goals

-Align Your Open Data Program with Your Mission and Strategic Plan
-Adapt Open Data Goals to Your Local Context
-Common Goals for Open Data Initiatives

3. Assemble a Winning Team
-The Open Data Stakeholders
-Winning Your Chief Executive’s Support
-Invite Every Department

4. Develop Your Open Data Policy
-Why Is an Open Data Policy Necessary?
     The Benefits of Good Policy
-Elements of an Effective Open Data Policy
-The Main Types of Open Data Policies
-Open Data Policy Examples and Resources
     Sample Policies and Implementation Guides
     Sample Resolution Statements

5. The Data Plan
-Which Data Should You Publish First?
     8 Steps to a Successful Data Plan
         1. Identify the data that supports your strategic goals.
         2. Adapt your open data goals to your local context.
         3. Start with the data already on your site.
         4. Analyze your site traffic.
         5. Analyze your FOIA and public information requests.
         6. Request feedback from citizens.
         7. Interview your co-workers.
         8. Don’t reinvent the wheel. Copy what works.
     What Are Open Data Leaders Publishing?
     Data Format and Open Data Standards
-Open Data Standards
-Application Programming Interfaces

6. Open Data Implementation in Six Steps
-Think About a Pilot to Start
-Phase 1 – Start Small
-Phase 2 – Get Transparency Done
-Phase 3 – Bring Developers on Board
-Phase 4 – Increase Agency Participation
-Phase 5 – Optimize for Efficiencies and Cost Savings
-Phase 6 – Federate Data with Neighboring Cities, Counties, and States

7. Engage Your Community
-Promoting Your Open Data Portal
     Examples of Success
     Engagement
-Four Essentials of Developer Evangelism
     Publish Data
     Connect With Civic Developer Organizations
     Host a Hackathon
     Be Humble
-What Apps Are Developers Building?

8. An Outstanding Citizen Experience
-Curating the Data Experience
-Rethinking the Citizen Experience
     From File Downloads to Useful Visualizations
     Say It With Maps!
     Richer Visual Context? Try Map Mashups
     The “App-ification” of Data
     Taking the Experience Mobile

9. Join the Open Data Community
-The Growing Open Data Movement
-How to Stay Connected to the Open Data Community

Acknowledgements & Glossary

Open Data Companion Kit

Project Open Data  
http://project-open-data.github.io/

1. Background
2. Definitions
2-1 Open Data Principles - The set of open data principles.
2-2 Standards, Specifications, and Formats - Standards, specifications, and formats supporting open data objectives.
2-3 Open Data Glossary - The glossary of open data terms.
2-4 Open Licenses - The definition for open licenses.
2-5 Common Core Metadata - The schema used to describe datasets, APIs, and published data at agency.gov/data.
3. Implementation Guidance
Implementation guidance for open data practices.
3-1 U.S. Government Policy on Open Data - Full text of the memorandum.
3-2 Implementation Guide - Official OMB implementation guidance for each step of implementing the policy.
3-3 Public Data Listing - The specific guidance for publishing the Open Data Catalog at the agency.gov/data page.
3-4 Frequently Asked Questions - A growing list of common questions and answers to facilitate adoption of open data projects.
3-5 Open Data Cross Priority (CAP) Goal - Information on the development of the Open Data CAP goal as required in the Open Data Executive Order.
4. Tools
This section is a list of ready-to-use solutions or tools that will help agencies jump-start their open efforts. These are real, implementable, coded solutions that were developed to significantly reduce the barrier to implementing open data at your agency. Many of these tools are hosted at Labs.Data.gov and developers are encouraged to contribute improvements to them and contribute other tools which help us implement the spirit of Project Open Data.
4-1 Database to API - Dynamically generate RESTful APIs from the contents of a database table. Provides JSON, XML, and HTML. Supports most popular databases. - Hosted
4-2 CSV to API - Dynamically generate RESTful APIs from static CSVs. Provides JSON, XML, and HTML. - Hosted
4-3 Spatial Search - A RESTful API that allows the user to query geographic entities by latitude and longitude, and extract data.
4-4 Kickstart - A WordPress plugin to help agencies kickstart their open data efforts by allowing citizens to browse existing datasets and vote for suggested priorities.
4-5 PDF Filler - PDF Filler is a RESTful service (API) to aid in the completion of existing PDF-based forms and empower web developers to use browser-based forms and modern web standards to facilitate the collection of information. - Hosted
4-6 Catalog Generator - Multi-format tool to generate and maintain agency.gov/data catalog files. - Hosted Alternative
4-7 A data.json validator can help you check compliance with the POD schema. - Hosted
4-8 Project Open Data Dashboard - A dashboard to check the status of /data and /data.json at each agency. This also includes a validator.
4-9 Data.json File Merger - Allows the easy combination of multiple data.json files from component agencies or bureaus into one combined file.
4-10 API Sandbox - Interactive API documentation systems.
4-11 CFPB Project Qu - The CFPB’s in-progress data publishing platform, created to serve public data sets.
4-12 HMDA Tools - Lightweight tools to make importing and analyzing Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data easier.
4-13 ESRI2Open - A tool which converts spatial and non-spatial data form ESRI only formats to the Open Data formats, CSV, JSON, or GeoJSON, making them more a part of the WWW ecology.
4-14 ckanext-datajson - A CKAN extension to generate agency.gov/data.json catalog files.
4-15 DKAN - An open data portal modeled on CKAN. DKAN is a stand alone Drupal distribution that allows anyone to spin up an open data portal in minutes as well as two modules, DKAN Dataset and DKAN Datastore, that can be added to existing Drupal sites to add data portal functionality to an exist Drupal site.
4-16 DataVizWiz - A Drupal module that provides a fast way to get data vizualizations online.
4-17 Esri Geoportal Server - Open source catalog supporting ISO/FGDC/DC/… metadata with mapping to DCAT to support agency.gov/data.json listings in addition to providing OGC CSW, OAI-PMH and OpenSearch. Supports automated harvesting from other open catalog sources.
4-18 Libre Information Batch Restructuring Engine - Open data conversion and API tool, created by the Office of the Chief Information Officer of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
4-19 JSON-to-CSV Converter - A handy means of converting data.json files to a spreadsheet-friendly format. A similar tool can provide basic CSV-to-JSON functionality.
5. Resources
This section contains programmatic tools, resources, and/or checklists to help programs determine open data requirements.
5-1 Metadata Resources - Resources to provide guidance and assistance for each aspect of creating and maintaining agency.gov/data catalog files.
5-2 Business Case for Open Data - Overview of the benefits associated with open data.
5-3 General Workflows for Open Data Projects - A comprehensive overview of the steps involved in open data projects and their associated benefits.
5-4 Open License Examples - Potential licenses for data and content.
5-5 API Basics - Introductory resources for understanding application programming interfaces (APIs).
5-6 Data Release Safeguard Checklist - Checklist to enable the safe and secure release of data.
5-7 Digital PII Checklist - Tool to assist agencies identify personally identifiable information in data.
5-8 Applying the Open Data Policy to Federal Awards: FAQ - Frequently asked questions for contracting officers, grant professionals and the federal acquisitions community on applying the Open Data Policy to federal awards.
5-9 Example Policy Documents - Collection of memos, guidance and policy documents about open data for reference.
5-10 Example Data Hubs - Collection of department, agency, and program data sites across the federal government.
5-11 Licensing policies, principles, and resources - Some examples of how government has addressed open licensing questions.
6. Case Studies
Case studies of novel or best practices from agencies who are leading in open data help others understand the challenges and opportunities for success.
6-1 Department of Labor API Program - A department perspective on developing APIs for general use and, in particular, building the case for an ecosystem of users by developing SDKs.
6-2 Department of Transportation Enterprise Data Inventory - A review of DOT’s strategy and policy when creating a robust data inventory program.
6-3 Disaster Assistance Program Coordination - The coordinated campaign led by FEMA has integrated a successful data exchange among 16 agencies to coordinate an important public service.
6-4 Environmental Protection Agency Central Data Exchange - The agency’s data exchange provides a model for programs that seek to coordinate the flow of data among industry, state, local, and tribal entities.
6-5 FederalRegister.gov API - A core government program update that has grown into an important public service.
6-6 National Broadband Map - The National Broadband Map, a case study on open innovation for national policy. Produced by the Wilson Center.
6-7 National Renewable Energy Laboratory API program - An agency perspective on developing APIs for general use and in particular building the case for the internal re-use of the resources.
6-8 USAID Crowdsourcing to Open Data - A case study that shows how USAID invited the “crowd” to clean and geocode a USAID dataset in order to open and map the data.
6-9 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Data and Information Products - a case study of how CMS is transitioning to a data-driven culture, including the creation of a new office for information products and data analytics, the release of open data summarizing provider utilization and payment information, and the responsible disclosure of restricted use data to qualified parties.
For Developers: View all appendices (and source)
7. Open Data Engagement
Data Jam
Datapalooza
Hackathon
Online Community
FOIA Officers and Ombudsman
Templates and instructions

Open Government Data (The Book) by Joshua Tauberer
http://opengovdata.io/
(All rights reserved by Joshua Tauberer)

Civic Hacking and Government Data 
-Civic Hacking 
-History of the Movement 
-Open Government, Big Data, and Mediators
Civic Hacking By Example 
-Visualizing Metro Ridership
Why I Built GovTrack.us
Applications for Open Government
-Sunlight as a Disinfectant 
-Democratizing Legal Information 
-Informing Policy Decisions 
-Consumer Products
A Brief Legal History of Open Government Data
-Ancient Origins of Open Access to Law
-The U.S. Freedom of Information Act 
-The 21st Century: Data Policy
14 Principles of Open Government Data
-Online and Free, Primary, Timely, Accessible (Principles 1–4) 
     (1) Information is not meaningfully public if it is not available on the Internet for free.
     (2) “Primary: Primary data is data as collected at the source, with the finest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.”
     (3) “Timely: Data are made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data.” Data is not open if it is only shared after it is too late for it to be useful to the public.
     (4) “Accessible: Data are available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes.”
-Analyzable Data in Open Formats (Principles 5 and 7) 
     (5) Analyzable.
     (7) “Non-proprietary: Data are available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control.”
-No Discrimination and License-Free (Principles 6 and 8) 
     (6) “Non-discriminatory: Data are available to anyone, with no requirement of registration.”
     (8) “License-free.” Dissemination of the data is not limited by intellectual property law such as copyright, patents, or trademarks, contractual terms, or other arbitrary restrictions.
-Publishing Data with Permanence, Trust, and Provenance (Principles 9–11)
     (9) Permanent: Data should be made available at a stable Internet location indefinitely.
     (10) Safe file formats: “Government bodies publishing data online should always seek to publish using data formats that do not include executable content.”
     (11) Provenance and trust: “Published content should be digitally signed or include attestation of publication/creation date, authenticity, and integrity.”
-On The Openness Process (Public Input, Public Review, and Coordination; Principles 12–14)
     (12) Public input: The public is in the best position to determine what information technologies will be best suited for the applications the public intends to create for itself.
     (13) Public review
     (14) Interagency coordination
Data Quality: Precision, Accuracy, and Cost
Bulk Data or an API?
A Maturity Model for Prioritizing Open Government Data
Case Studies
     -U.S. Federal Open Data Policy 
     -Transparency, Participation, and Collaboration 
     -The Later Memorandums 
     -House Disbursements 
     -State Laws and the District of Columbia Code
Paradoxes in Open Government
     -The Bhoomi Program and Digital Divides
     -Unintended Consequences and the Limits of Transparency 
     -Looking for Corruption in All the Wrong Places 
     -Conclusion
Example Policy Language
     -Open Government Data Definition: The 8 Principles of Open Government Data 
     -OKF’s Open Knowledge Definition 
     -New Hampshire HB 418

Open Data Handbook by Open Knowledge Foundation
http://opendatahandbook.org/
(CC-BY Open Knowledge Foundation)

Introduction
Why Open Data? 
What is Open Data? 
How to Open up Data 
So I’ve Opened Up Some Data, Now What? 
Glossary 
Appendices

Open Data Ireland: Open Data Publication Handbook
(CC-BY Deirdre Lee, Richard Cyganiak & Stefan Decker at Insight Centre for Data Analytics, NUI Galway)
https://www.insight-centre.org/sites/default/files/publications/open-data-publication-handbook.pdf

Step-by-Step Guide to Open Data Publishing 
Step 1 Carry out a Data Audit
Step 2 Select what Data to Publish

 [Common High-Value Datasets]

Step 3 Ensure Data Protection Laws are Adhered to
Step 4 Associate Data with an Open License
Step 5 Publish Data as 3- to 5-star Open Data
     *Publish data on the Web under an Open License
     ** Publish data in a machine-readable, structured format
     *** Publish data in a non-proprietary format
     **** Use URIs to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff
     ***** Link your data to other data to provide context

[Machine-Readable and Non-Proprietary Data Formats]


Step 6 Associate Data with Standardised Metadata
Step 7 Use Data Standards
Step 8 Use Unique Identifiers
Step 9 Provide Access to the Data
Step 10 Publish Data on the National Open Data Portal

...and more resources:
"Open Government - Collaboration, Transparency, and Participation in Practice" by Daniel Lathrop and Laurel Ruma
"Open Data Guidebook" by City of Philadelphia
"Open Source for Government" by Ben Balter
"Open Government Briefing Guide" by Open Austin


Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are my own, and do not reflect those of my employer. -Fumi Yamazaki